Did you just think about lead sheets! They are, after all drawings, not documents. In a cutaway, as the name implies, the component or system has a portion cut away to reveal the internal parts of the component or system. And for this reason, there are various degrees of detail that a particular company will generally choose to show. The first letter defines the measured or initiating variables such as Analysis A , Flow F , Temperature T , etc. I plan to use these in some upcoming videos to illustrate how the symbols from the lead sheets are applied to a real drawing and then compare that drawing to actual pictures of real-world plants. However, it is a simple matter to infer that if there is an increase in the level of liquid in V-104, the control valve will open slightly and the flow of benzene product will increase, tending to lower the level in V-104.
As shown on Figure 18, this view makes it easier to see how the system looks and how its various portions or parts are related to one another. Typical functions are: display, record, transmit, and control. Rather, it is left to the discretion of the engineers involved. Electrical schematic drawings present information such as the individual relays, relay contacts, fuses, motors, lights, and instrument sensors. Arshadul Huda earned his Master of Engineering in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering from University of Calgary, Canada.
Figure 8 : Example of a Schematic Electronic Diagrams and Schematics Electronic diagrams and schematics are designed to present information about the individual components resistors, transistors, and capacitors used in a circuit, as illustrated in Figure 9. End Connections End connections can be represented generically with the lines representing the pipes going directly into the valve as in all of the examples above. Because there is an emphasis on hands-on activities, this course provides more practical experience than typical university-level courses. The typical arrangements of various equipment and system will also be presented at the end. The direction of flow is indicated by an arrowhead at the end of the line where it meets the next component as well as at every 90 degree turn.
Any of you that have tampered with object-oriented programming should be nodding in agreement at this point. He has extensive experience of teaching from high school students to industry professionals. Arshad is also a part-time teaching instructor by passion and has been doing this for the last 25 years. Did you know you can create a free account and start diagramming with just an email address? To learn more, please visit. Specifications are usually provided in separate documents. This chapter will introduce the five common categories of drawings.
All the pipes, tubes and even overflows in the plant. Examples are piping layout, flowpaths, pumps, valves, instruments, signal modifiers, and controllers, as illustrated in Figure 6. The flowrate of this stream is controlled by a control valve that receives a signal from a level measuring element placed on V-104. Other views, such as a bottom view, are used to more fully depict the component or system when necessary. The value of these diagrams does not end with the start-up of the plant.
This provides a more realistic three dimensional view. Once you have the categorical areas broken down, the drawing set is then linked together via arrows and notations. He has worked as a Piping Manager, Construction Site Manager, and Project Manager, with a broad operational understanding of all exploration, production, and refining aspects of the oil and gas industry. Once this has been done, it is a relatively simple matter to see in which direction the valve should change in order to make the desired change in the control variable. I will talk about this more in a future post.
This illustrates that the valve can be removed without cutting the pipe. Ship ballast water is terrible for the environment. Examples are house plans, building elevations outside view of each side of a structure , equipment installation drawings, foundation drawings, and equipment assembly drawings. In just about 1 hour you could have a better understanding of all of those many lines and symbols you see in plant and refinery drawings. Semi-permanent threaded connections are shown with small hollow circles at the connection point. These drawings are usually used by circuit designers and electronics repair personnel. Here are two examples: This example shows a fluid flow system and defines mechanical and design configurations that are in place.
The pipe lines are represented by lines connecting to each side of the valve symbol. I probably forgot some stuff in the list above but you get the idea. About all that can be done to correct or alter performance of the plant is to open, close, or change the position of a valve. Type of Actuator The method of actuation is defined by a line coming up from the center of the valve with a small symbol, many times containing a letter, at the top of the line. For a decrease in the level of liquid, the valve will close slightly. The standard formats are single line, pictorial or double line, and cutaway. Figure 10 : Example of a Logic Print Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural Drawings Fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings are designed to present the detailed information required to construct or fabricate a part, system, or structure.